Stretching biomolecules

RNA & Protein folding

Molecular Motors

Single molecule force spectroscopy

Deciphering the energy landscape of biomolecules

Polymer Physics

Allostery

Allostery

Communication over the Network of Binary Switches Regulates the Activation of A2A Adenosine Receptor

Communication over the Network of Binary Switches Regulates the Activation of A2A Adenosine Receptor (PLoS Comp. Biol. 2015)

Dynamics and functions of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are accurately regulated by the type of ligands that bind to the orthosteric or allosteric binding sites. To glean the structural and dynamical origin of ligand-dependent modulation of GPCR activity, we per- formed total ~ 5 μsec molecular dynamics simulations of A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) in its apo, antagonist-bound, and agonist-bound forms in an explicit water and membrane en- vironment, and examined the corresponding dynamics and correlation between the 10 key structural motifs that serve as the allosteric hotspots in intramolecular signaling network. We dubbed these 10 structural motifs binary switches as they display molecular interac- tions that switch between two distinct states. By projecting the receptor dynamics on these binary switches that yield 210 microstates, we show that (i) the receptors in apo, antagonist- bound, and agonist-bound states explore vastly different conformational space; (ii) among the three receptor states the apo state explores the broadest range of microstates; (iii) in the presence of the agonist, the active conformation is maintained through coherent couplings among the binary switches; and (iv) to be most specific, our analysis shows that W246, lo- cated deep inside the binding cleft, can serve as both an agonist sensor and actuator of en- suing intramolecular signaling for the receptor activation. Finally, our analysis of multiple trajectories generated by inserting an agonist to the apo state underscores that the transi- tion of the receptor from inactive to active form requires the disruption of ionic-lock in the DRY motif.

Mapping the intramolecular signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors (Proteins: Struct. Funct. Bioinfo. '14) 

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a major gatekeeper of extracellular signals on plasma membrane, are unarguably one of the most important therapeutic targets. Given the recent discoveries of allosteric modulations, an allosteric wiring diagram of intramolecular signal transductions would be of great use to glean the mechanism of receptor regulation. Here by evaluating betweenness centrality (CB) of each residue, we calculate maps of information flow in GPCRs and identify key residues for signal transductions and their pathways. Compared with preexisting approaches, the allosteric hotspots that our CB-based analysis detects for A2A adenosine receptor (A2A-AR) and bovine rhodopsin are better correlated with biochemical data. In particular, our analysis outperforms other methods in locating the rotameric microswitches, which are generally deemed critical for mediating orthosteric signaling in class A GPCRs. For A2A-AR, the inter-residue cross-correlation map, calculated using equilibrium structural ensemble from molecular dynamics simulations, reveals that strong signals of long-range transmembrane communicaitons exist only in the agonist-bound state. A seemingly subtle variation in structure, found in different GPCR subtypes or imparted by agonist bindings or a point mutation at an allosteric site, can lead to a drastic difference in the map of signaling pathways and protein activity. The signaling map of GPCRs provides valuable insights into allosteric modulations as well as reliable identifications of orthosteric signaling pathways.

Link between Allosteric Signal Transduction and Functional Dynamics in a Multisubunit Enzyme: S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase (JACS '11)

S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), a cellular enzyme that plays a key role in methylation reactions including those required for maturation of viral mRNA, is an important drug target in the discovery of antiviral agents. While targeting the active site is a straightforward strategy of enzyme inhibition, evidence of allosteric modulation of active site in many enzymes underscores the molecular origin of signal transduction. Information of co-evolving sequences in SAHH family and the key residues for functional dynamics that can be identified using native topology of the enzyme provide glimpses into how the allosteric signaling network, dispersed over the molecular structure, coordinates intra- and intersubunit conformational dynamics. To study the link between the allosteric communication and functional dynamics of SAHHs, we performed Brownian dynamics simulations by building a coarse-grained model based on the holo and ligand-bound structures. The simulations of ligand-induced transition revealed that the signal of intrasubunit closure dynamics is transmitted to form intersubunit contacts, which in turn invoke a precise alignment of active site, followed by the dimer-dimer rotation that compacts the whole tetrameric structure. Further analyses of SAHH dynamics associated with ligand binding provided evidence of both induced fit and population shift mechanisms and also showed that the transition-state ensemble is akin to the ligand-bound state. Besides the formation of enzyme-ligand contacts at the active site, the allosteric couplings from the residues distal to the active site are vital to the enzymatic function.




Contact Information : Changbong Hyeon, Professor, School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 02455, Republic of Korea
+82-2-958-3810 (tel)

2010 KIAS Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group